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Back Pressure Turbine
What is a Back Pressure Turbine?
A back pressure turbine, also known as a "non-condensing turbine" is typically found in industries requiring "process steam" and include facilities such as; cogeneration / chp systems, district energy systems, paper and pulp plants, refineries and oil and natural gas facilities where there are large amounts of low pressure process steam available. The exhaust pressure setting for back pressure turbines is controlled by a regulating valve which is based on the process steam pressure requirements for the plant.
When specifying a new boiler, consider a high-pressure boiler with a backpressure steam turbine-generator placed between the boiler and the steam distribution network.
A turbine-generator can often produce enough electricity to justify the capital cost of purchasing the higher-pressure boiler and the turbine-generator.
Since boiler fuel usage per unit of steam production increases with boiler pressure, facilities often install boilers that produce steam at the lowest pressure consistent with end use and distribution requirements.
In the backpressure turbine configuration, the turbine does not consume steam. Instead, it simply reduces the pressure and energy content of steam that is subsequently exhausted into the process header. In essence, the turbogenerator serves the same steam function as a pressure reduction valve (PRV)—it reduces steam pressure—but uses the pressure drop to produce highly valued electricity in addition to the low-pressure steam. Shaft power is produced when a nozzle directs jets of high-pressure steam against the blades of the turbine’s rotor. The rotor is attached to a shaft that is coupled to an electrical generator.
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Effective Heat Rate for the CHP
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Additional Background Information on Back-Pressure Turbines
The capital cost of a back-pressure turbo-generator complete with electrical switchgear varies from about $900 per kilowatt (kW) for a small system (150 kW) to less than $200/kW for a larger system (>2,000 kW). Installation costs vary, depending upon piping and wiring runs, but they typically average 75% of equipment costs.
Packaged or “off-the-shelf” backpressure turbo-generators are now available in ratings as low as 50 kW. Backpressure turbo-generators should be considered when a boiler has steam flows of at least 3,000 pounds per hour (lb/hr), and when the steam pressure drop between the boiler and the distribution network is at least 100 pounds per square inch gauge (psig). The backpressure turbine is generally installed in parallel with a PRV, to ensure that periodic turbine-generator maintenance does not interfere with plant thermal deliveries.
Cost-Effective Power Generation
In a backpressure steam turbine, energy from high-pressure inlet steam is efficiently converted into electricity, and low-pressure exhaust steam is provided to a plant process.
The turbine exhaust steam has a lower temperature than the superheated steam created when pressure is reduced through a PRV.
In order to make up for this heat or enthalpy loss and meet process energy requirements, steam plants with backpressure turbine installations must increase their boiler steam throughput (typically by 5% to 7%). Every Btu that is recovered as high-value electricity is replaced with an equivalent Btu of heat for downstream processes.
Thermodynamically, steam turbines achieve an isentropic efficiency of 20% to 70%.
Economically, however, the turbine generates power at the efficiency of the steam boiler. The resulting power generation efficiency (modern steam boilers operate at approximately 80% efficiency) is well in excess of the efficiency for state-of-the-art single- or combined-cycle gas turbines.
High efficiency means low electricity generating costs. Backpressure turbines can produce electrical energy at costs that are often less than $0.04/kWh.
electricity savings alone—not to mention ancillary benefits from enhanced
on-site electricity reliability and reduced greenhouse gas emissions and
criteria pollutants—are often sufficient to completely recover the cost of the
What is "Cogeneration"?
Did you know that 10% of our nation's electricity now comes from "cogeneration" plants?
is so efficient, it saves its customers up to 40% on their energy expenses, and
provides even greater savings to our environment through significant reductions
in fuel usage and much lower greenhouse
Cogeneration - also known as “combined heat and power” (CHP), cogen, district energy, total energy, and combined cycle, is the simultaneous production of heat (usually in the form of hot water and/or steam) and power, utilizing one primary fuel such as natural gas, or a renewable fuel, such as Biomethane, B100 Biodiesel, or Synthesis Gas.
Cogeneration technology is not the latest industry buzz-word being touted as the solution to our nation's energy woes. Cogeneration is a proven technology that has been around for over 120 years!
Our nation's first commercial power plant was a cogeneration plant that was designed and built by Thomas Edison in 1882 in New York. Our nation's first commercial power plant was called the "Pearl Street Station."
What is "Trigeneration"?
Trigeneration is the simultaneous production of three forms of energy - typically, Cooling, Heating and Power - from only one fuel input. Put another way, our trigeneration power plants produce three different types of energy for the price of one.
Trigeneration energy systems can reach overall system efficiencies of 86% to 93%. Typical "central" power plants, that do not need the heat generated from the combustion and power generation process, are only about 33% efficient.
Trigeneration Diagram & Description
Trigeneration Power Plants' Have the Highest System Efficiencies and are
About 300 % More Efficient than Typical Central Power Plants
Trigeneration plants are installed at locations that can benefit from all three forms of energy. These types of installations that install trigeneration energy systems are called "onsite power generation" also referred to as "decentralized energy."
One of our company's principal's first experience with the design and development of a trigeneration power plant was the trigeneration power plant installation at Rice University in 1987 where our trigeneration development team started out by conducting a "cogeneration" feasibility study. The EPC contractor that Rice University selected installed the trigeneration power which included a 4.0 MW Ruston gas turbine power plant, along with waste heat recovery boilers and Absorption Chillers. A "waste heat recovery boiler" captures the heat from the exhaust of the gas turbine. From there, the recovered energy was converted to chilled water - originally from (3) Hitachi Absorption Chillers - 2 were rated at 1,000 tons each, and the third Hitachi Absorption Chiller was rated at 1,500 tons. The Hitachi Absorption Chillers were replaced shortly after their installation by the EPC company. The first trigeneration plant at Rice University was so successful, they added a second 5.0 MW trigeneration plant so today, Rice University is now generating about 9.0 MW of electricity, and also producing the cooling and heating the university needs from the trigeneration plant and circulating the trigeneration energy around its campus.
Trigeneration's "Super-Efficiency" compared
with other competing technologies
As you can see, there is No Competition for Trigeneration!
Our trigeneration power plants are the ideal onsite power and energy solution for customers that include: Data Centers, Hospitals, Universities, Airports, Central Plants, Colleges & Universities, Dairies, Server Farms, District Heating & Cooling Plants, Food Processing Plants, Golf/Country Clubs, Government Buildings, Grocery Stores, Hotels, Manufacturing Plants, Nursing Homes, Office Buildings / Campuses, Radio Stations, Refrigerated Warehouses, Resorts, Restaurants, Schools, Server Farms, Shopping Centers, Supermarkets, Television Stations, Theatres and Military Bases.
At about 86% to 93% net system efficiency, our trigeneration power plants are about 300% more efficient at providing energy than your current electric utility. That's because the typical electric utility's power plants are only about 33% efficient - they waste 2/3 of the fuel in generating electricity in the enormous amount of waste heat energy that they exhaust through their smokestacks.
Trigeneration is defined as the simultaneous production of three energies: Cooling, Heating and Power. Our trigeneration energy systems use the same amount of fuel in producing three energies that would normally only produce just one type of energy. This means our customers that have our trigeneration power plants have significantly lower energy expenses, and a lower carbon footprint.
Our cogeneration and trigeneration energy systems can be an ideal solution for customers wanting increased power reliability and decreased energy and environmental costs. A few of the types of businesses, facilities and operations that might benefit from our cogeneration and trigeneration energy system(s) include the following:
Colleges & Universities
District Heating & Cooling plants
Food Processing Plants
Government Buildings and Facilities
Office Buildings / Campuses
Waste Heat Recovery in Cogeneration and
Trigeneration power and energy systems
In most cogeneration and trigeneration power and energy systems, the exhaust gas from the electric generation equipment is ducted to a heat exchanger to recover the thermal energy in the gas. These heat exchangers are air-to-water heat exchangers, where the exhaust gas flows over some form of tube and fin heat exchange surface and the heat from the exhaust gas is transferred to make hot water or steam. The hot water or steam is then used to provide hot water or steam heating and/or to operate thermally activated equipment, such as an absorption chiller for cooling or a desiccant dehumidifer for dehumidification.
Many of the waste heat recovery technologies used in building co/trigeneration systems require hot water, some at moderate pressures of 15 to 150 psig. In the cases where additional steam or pressurized hot water is needed, it may be necessary to provide supplemental heat to the exhaust gas with a duct burner.
In some applications air-to-air heat exchangers can be used. In other instances, if the emissions from the generation equipment are low enough, such as is with many of the microturbine technologies, the hot exhaust gases can be mixed with make-up air and vented directly into the heating system for building heating.
In the majority of installations, a flapper damper or "diverter" is employed to vary flow across the heat transfer surfaces of the heat exchanger to maintain a specific design temperature of the hot water or steam generation rate.
Waste Heat Recovery Installation
In some co/trigeneration designs, the exhaust gases can be used to activate a thermal wheel or a desiccant dehumidifier. Thermal wheels use the exhaust gas to heat a wheel with a medium that absorbs the heat and then transfers the heat when the wheel is rotated into the incoming airflow.
professional engineer should be involved in designing and sizing of the waste
heat recovery section. For a proper and economical operation, the design of
the heat recovery section involves consideration of many related factors, such
as the thermal capacity of the exhaust gases, the exhaust flow rate, the
sizing and type of heat exchanger, and the desired parameters over a various
range of operating conditions of the co/trigeneration system — all of which
need to be considered for proper and economical operation.
The Market and Potential for Waste Heat Recovery technologies and solutions
There are more than 500,000 smokestacks in the U.S. that are "wasting" heat, an untapped resource that can be converted to energy with Waste Heat Recovery technologies.
About 10% of these 500,000 smokestacks represent about 75% of the available wasted heat which has a stack gas exit temperature above 500 degrees F. which could generate approximately 50,000 megawatts of electricity annually and an annual market of over $75 billion in gross revenues before tax incentives and greenhouse gas emissions credits.
Waste Heat Recovery technologies represent the least cost solution which provides the greatest return on investment, than any other possible green energy technology or "carbon free energy" opportunity!
For more information on Waste Heat Recovery and Waste Heat Boilers, call/email us.
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CHP Systems * EcoGeneration * Energy Master Planning * Net Zero Energy
Pressure to Power * Solar Cogeneration * Trigeneration * Waste Heat Recovery
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That produce results:
Greater market share
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New customers and projects
American Energy Plan
3-5 million new jobs
Fuel Savings of > $1.50/gallon
American Energy Independence
Ends the worst economic depression of all time
hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of billions of dollars every year for oil,
much of it from the Middle East, is just about the single stupidest thing that
modern society could possibly do. It’s very difficult to think of anything
more idiotic than that.”
~ R. James Woolsey, Jr., former Director CIA
Price of Addiction|
to Foreign Oil
According to R. James Woolsey, former Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, “The basic insight is to realize that global warming, the geopolitics of oil, and warfare in the Persian Gulf are not separate problems — they are aspects of a single problem, the West’s dependence on oil.”
#BackPressure #BackPressureTurbine #Turbine
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